What comes to mind when you hear “Ainu scholarship”?
Have you read any first-hand narratives from Ainu people, or have you experienced challenges finding literature that talks about the everyday life of the Ainu? Unfortunately, most literature about the Ainu lacks the voices and perspectives of the Ainu people. AinuToday can provide you with relevant literature and information about the everyday life of the Ainu, written by Ainu people and scholars themselves.
Who are the Ainu people?
The Ainu are a Northern people of Japan, and were officially recognized as Indigenous people by the Japanese government in 2008. Ainu means human being in the Ainu language. The Ainu have traditionally lived in the geographic area of the Kurile Islands, southern Sakhalin, Hokkaido and part of Honshu (the largest island within the Japanese archipelago). Ainu traditional livelihood was based on hunting, fishing, and foraging wild plants and herbs. These activities still remain, to some extent, part of the contemporary livelihood of the Ainu. Such cultural practices and traditional knowledge offer a new opportunity for us to understand nature and our way of living. The Ainu share a similar history with many other Indigenous peoples around the world who have once lost their cultures and languages under assimilation policies set by colonial governments.
Within academia, Siddle (1996) describes how the Japanese academic landscape took shape under the influence of discourses on “race” and Social Darwinism. This resulted in the Ainu becoming a fascinating research “object” in Japan.
Now, Ainu contemporary life is deeply intertwined with Japanese society, with people of Ainu descent enrolling in the Japanese education system and speaking Japanese as their mother tongue. There is no ethnic-based national census in Japan, and therefore, the Ainu population in Japan remains uncertain. However, Ainu political movements and Ainu Studies continue evolving to shape a new ground to position Ainu voices within the framework of public and academic discourse.
Ainu: 150 years of resilience: Lecture by Dr. Kanako Uzawa
Centre for Japanese Research, The University of British Columbia, Canada.
Ainu: the indigenous people of Japanese islands. A history of discrimination through the eyes of Taichi Kaizawa: Lecture by Mr. Taichi Kaizawa (日本語 and English)
Hunter College, New York.
‘What does it mean to be Ainu in the twenty-first century? Ainu authenticity‘, Guest lecture by Dr. Kanako Uzawa
David Lam Centre, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
Date: June 21, 2021
Editor’s Note: Sources in bold and underlined typeface are Aynupuri. While the term Aynupuri is traditionally explained and understood among Ainu as an act of doing or practicing Ainu traditional ways, we use the term Aynupuri to denote Ainu ways of being or doing. In other words, we view Aynupuri as referring to indigeneity, and connoting self-determination and the ability to decide how one wishes to express one’s being and experiences without external interference. This understanding of Aynupuri allows Ainu people living throughout Japan or overseas—to free themselves from essentialized representations of what it means to be Ainu.
- 上村英明(2008) 「『先住民族の権利に関する国連宣言』獲得への長い道のり」『PRIME』第27号
- 上村英明(2008) 『アイヌ民族の視点からみた「先住民族の権利に関する国際連合宣言」の解説と利用法』市民外交センター
- 先住民族の10年ニュース バックナンバー
- 小野 有五（2022）『「新しいアイヌ学」のすすめ−−知里幸恵の夢をもとめて』藤原書店
- 合田 一道（2021）『「アイヌ新聞」記者 高橋真−−反骨孤高の新聞人』藤原書店
- 石原 真衣（2020）『〈沈黙〉の自伝的民族誌 (オートエスノグラフィー) サイレント・アイヌの痛みと救済の物語』北海道大学出版会
- 宇梶 静江（2011）『すべてを明日の糧として』清流出版
- 宇梶 静江（2020）『大地よ! ––アイヌの母神、宇梶静江自伝』藤原書店
- 宇梶 静江（2022）『アイヌ力よ！––次世代へのメッセージ』藤原書店
- 宇梶 静江・鮫島 純子 （2022）『奇跡の対話––渋沢栄一の孫とアイヌの母神』藤原書店
- 中川裕（2021）『ニューエクスプレス プラス アイヌ語』白水社
- 宇井眞紀子（2001）『アイヌときどき日本人』写真集 社会評論社
- 札幌大学ウレシパクラブ（2013）『ウレシパ オルシペ――アイヌ文化で育てあう日々』一般社団法人 札幌大学ウレシパクラブ
Abe, Chisato. 2018. “Establishment of the Ainu Indigenous People’s Film Society.” In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 99-102. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Ishihara, Mai. 2018. “Chinmoku wo tou: ‘sairento Ainu’ toiu mou hitotsu no senjūmin mondai (Calling into Silence: “Silent Ainu” as Another Issue of the Current Indigenous Situation).” Journal of the Center for Northern Humanities 11: 3–21. Accessed 10 June 2019. https://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/70071/1/11_02_ishihara.pdf (Japanese)
Kaizawa, Koichi. 2004. “Inheriting Ainu Ethnicity,” Senri Ethnological Studies 66: 7-9. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://minpaku.repo.nii.ac.jp/index.php?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=2691&item_no=1&attribute_id=18&file_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=21
Loos, Noel and Takeshi Osanai (eds.). 1993. Indigenous Minorities and Education: Australian and Japanese Perspectives of their Indigenous Peoples, the Ainu, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Tokyo: Sanyūsha Publishing Co. Ltd., 1993. Accessed July 1, 2021: https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/285040
Maruyama, Masazumi. 2003. “The Ainu: A Discourse on being Japanese.” In The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the ‘Model Minority’, edited by Eric Mark Kramer, 85-109. London: Praeger. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://publisher.abc-clio.com/9780313059537
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 2000. “Roads to Otherness: Ainu and Identity Politics in Twentieth Century Japan.” In Papers of the 10th Biennial Conference of the Japanese Studies Association of Australia: Japanese Studies: Communities, Cultures Critiques. Volume One: Re-Mapping Japan, edited by Vera Mackie, Alina Skoutarides and Alison Tokita, 35-59. Clayton: Monash Asia Institute. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/105445
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 2001. “Northern Lights: The Making and Unmaking of Karafuto Identity.” Journal of Asian Studies 60(3): 645-671.
Peng, Fred. 1978. “Education: An Agent of Social Change in Ainu Community Life.” In Learning to be Japanese: Selected Readings on Japanese Society and Education, edited by Edward R. Beauchamp, 265-288. Hamden: Linnet Books. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.worldcat.org/title/learning-to-be-japanese-selected-readings-on-japanese-society-and-education/oclc/3481590
Sasaki, Masao. 1973. “Henshūkōki [編集後記; Editor’s Postscript].” Anutari Ainu 1:8. (Japanese).
Sunazawa, Kayo. 2014. “As a Child of Ainu,” foreword by ann-elise lewallen. In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Mark Hudson, ann-elise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 92-98. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780824839185
Tahara, Ryoko. 2018. “Ainu Women in the Past and Now,” translated by Hiroshi Maruyama. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 151-156. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Ukaji, Shizue. 2018. “A Quest for What We Ainu Are,” translated by Hiroshi Maruyama. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 169-173. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Uzawa, Kanako. 2018. “Everyday Acts of Resurgence and Diasporic Indigeneity among the Ainu of Tokyo.” In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 179-203. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Uzawa, Kanako. 2019a. “What Does Ainu Cultural Revitalization Mean to Ainu and Wajin Youth in the 21st Century? Case Study of Urespa as a Place to Learn Ainu culture in the City of Sapporo, Japan.” AlterNative 15(2): 168-179. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1177180119846665
Uzawa, Kanako. 2019b. “Being Ainu Today: Living in the Past, Present, and Future.” Kyoto Journal 98: 62–65
Uzawa, Kanako and Mark K. Watson. 2020a. “Urespa (“Growing Together”): The Remaking of Ainu-Wajin Relations in Japan through an Innovative Social Venture.” Asian Anthropology 19(1): 53-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1683478X.2019.1699599
Uzawa, Kanako. 2020b. “‘Crafting our Future Together’: Urban Diasporic Indigeneity from an Ainu Perspective in Japan.” Ph.D. diss., The Arctic University of Norway (UiT). DOI: https://hdl.handle.net/10037/17182
Antiga Edizioni (publishing house). 2018. Contemporary Japanese Artists: Ainu. Grafiche Antiga Spa, Italy: Imago Mundi Luciano Benetton Collection. Accessed May 18, 2021. http://imagomundiart.com/collections/ainu-contemporary-japanese-artists (English, Japanese, and Italian)
Committee to Organize “Exhibition of AINU Pictures to Promote Human Rights” (creator). 1991. Exhibition of Ainu Pictures to Promote Human Rights. Sapporo: Hashimoto Printing Co. (Japanese, some English)
Dubreuil, Chisato (Kitty). 2007. “The Ainu and Their Culture: A Critical Twenty-First Century Assessment.” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 5(11). Article ID 2589. Accessed May 24, 2021. https://apjjf.org/-Chisato-Kitty-Dubreuil/2589/article.html
Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture (FRPAC). 1999. The Seasons and Life of the Ainu: Tokachi Ainu and the Painter Byōzan Hirasawa. Sapporo: The Executive Committee of the Exhibition The Season and Life of the Ainu. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_seasons_and_life_of_the_Ainu.html?id=pUv8GwAACAAJ
Hayashi-Simpliciano, Ronda Shizuko. 2020. “Charanke and Hip Hop: The Argument for Re-storying the Education of Ainu in Diaspora Through Performance Ethnography.” PhD diss., University of Hawai’i. Accessed May 24, 2021. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/70367
Higashimura, Takeshi. 2010. “Eyes of Photographers and Critics of Pictures of the Ainu: Photography Magazines between the 1950s and the Early 70s and Genichiro Kakegawa.” Forum of International Development Studies 39: 19-39. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://www.gsid.nagoya-u.ac.jp/bpub/research/public/forum/39/02.pdf (Japanese)
Ikeda, Hiroshi (photographer). 2019. Ainu. Tokyo: Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. (Japanese and English)
Kayano, Shigeru. 1989. The Ainu: A Story of Japan’s Original People. Translated by Peter Howlett and Richard McNamara. Illustrated by Shunichi Iijima. Boston: Periplus Editions. [Children’s picture book]
Kōji Yūki. 2014 . “Message from Ainu-Mosir (Poem).” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson: xi. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780824839185
Maesawa, Taka (photographer). 2018. Bridging Life Across the Ainu Generations. Hokkaido: Fujida Printing Company. (Japanese and English)
Sakai, Mina. 2008. “Ainu no hakori [アイヌの誇り; Ainu Pride].” Days Japan 5(2): 10-17. (Japanese)
Sarashina, Genzō (author) and Kakegawa, Gen’ichirō (photographer). 1968. アイヌの四季(Ainu Seasons). Tokyo: Tankōsha. (Japanese)
Shinoda, Mana. 2018 “Living a Modern Life in Hokkaidō as a Young Ainu Dancer,” translated by Hiroshi Maruyama. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik: 163-186. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Tsuda, Nobuko. 2014a. “Our Ancestors’ Handprints: The Evolution of Ainu Women’s Clothing Culture,” foreword and translated by ann-elise lewallen. In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by. Mark Hudson, ann-elise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 153-170. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780824839185
Tsuda, Nobuko. 2014b. “Ainu ibunka no kenkyū (アイヌ衣文化の研究; Study on Ainu Clothing Culture.)” Ph.D. diss., Sokendai (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies). Accessed May 24, 2021. https://ir.soken.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=5035&item_no=1&page_id=29&block_id=155&fbclid=IwAR3V2fhn3wdsG78PrFTvQNtbXQfTnxqwWisvy8A4m05HHBAini2INikf-TE
Tsuda, Nobuko. 2018. “Heading towards the Restoration and Transmission of Ainu Culture,” translated by Hiroshi Maruyama. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 157-161. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Ui, Makiko. (photographer). 2011. アイヌ、風の肖像 (Ainu, Portrait of the Wind). Tokyo: Shinsensha. (Japanese and English)
Uzawa, Kanako. 2014. “Charanke,” Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Mark Hudson, ann-elise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 87-91. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780824839185
Osami, Gizo. 1996. Uepekere of Chitose: Thirteen Stories from the Land of the Ainu, translated by Yuji Yaguchi, with illustrations by Keizanurou Tejima. Sapporo: Kyobunsha.
Strong, Sarah Mehlhop. 2011. Ainu Spirits Singing: The Living World of Chiri Yukie’s Ainu Shinyoshu. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Biratori Ainu Culture Preservation Group (BACPG), with Taichi Kaizawa, Koichi Kaizawa, Miwako Kaizawa, Hidetomo Iwano, Satomi Ishii, and Harriet Kuhnlein. 2021. “Global Health Case Study: Biratori Town, Ainu, Saru River Region, Japan.” Montreal: McGill University Center for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment. Accessed September 6, 2021. https://www.mcgill.ca/cine/resources/data/ainu
Keira, Tomoko. 2018. The Spirit of Huci: Four Seasons of an Ainu Woman. Sapporo: Jurousha Co. Ltd.
Kitahara, Jirouta. 2011. “Life and Health Perspectives in Ainu Culture.” Journal of Japan Academy of Nursing Science, 31(2): 84–86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5630/jans.31.2_84 ( Japanese)
The Association of Rera. 1997. Rera Cise e no Michi – Kōshite Tokyo ni Ainu Ryōriten ga Dekita (レラチセへの道：こうして東京にアイヌ調理店が出来た; The Road Towards the Rera Cise: The Making of an Ainu Restaurant in Tokyo). Tokyo: Gendai Kikakushitsu. (Japanese)
Uzawa, Kanako. 2019. “Being Ainu Today: Living in the past, present, and future.” Kyoto Journal 98: 62–65.
Chikap, Mieko. 1989. “Long, Cold Winter: An Ainu Childhood Recalled.” AMPO: Japan-Asia Quarterly Review 20(4): 32-39.
Kayano, Shigeru. 1994. . Our Land Was a Forest: An Ainu Memoir, translated by Kyoko Selden and Lili Selden. Boulder: Westview Press.
Kayano, Shigeru. 1990. Ainu no ishibumi (アイヌの碑；Ainu Memorial). Tokyo: Asahi shinbun sha. (Japanese)
Anderson, Fred E. and Masami Iwasaki-Goodman. 2001. “Language and Culture Revitalisation in a Hokkaido Ainu Community.” In Studies in Japanese Bilingualism, edited by Mary Goebel Noguchi and Sandra Fotos, 45-67. Clevedon.: Multilingual Matters. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.multilingual-matters.com/page/detail/Studies-in-Japanese-Bilingualism/?k=9781853594892
DeChicchis, Joseph. 1995. “The Current State of the Ainu Language.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 16(1-2): 103-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1995.9994595
Kitahara, Jirouta. 2019. “Current Status of Ainu Cultural Revitalization.’ In Being Indigenous: Perspectives on Activism, Culture, Language and Identity, edited by Neyooxet Greymorning, 187–200. New York: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429454776
Maruyama, Hiroshi. 2014. “Japan’s Policies towards the Ainu Language and Culture with Special Reference to North Fennoscandian Sami Policies.” Acta Borealia 31(2): 152-175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2014.967980
Refsing, Kirsten. 2000. “Lost Aryans? John Batchelor and the Colonization of the Ainu Language.” Interventions 2(1): 21-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/136980100360779
Refsing, Kirsten. 2014. “From Collecting Words to Writing Grammars: A Brief History of Ainu Linguistics.” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson: 185-199. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Yamada Takako. 2001. The World View of the Ainu: Nature and Cosmos Reading from Language. London: Kegan Paul. Accessed July 1, 2021 https://www.worldcat.org/title/world-view-of-the-ainu-nature-and-cosmos-reading-from-language/oclc/49807678
Baba, Yuko. 1980. “A Study of Minority – Majority Relations: The Ainu and Japanese in Hokkaido.” Japan Interpreter 13(1): 60-92.
Cheung, Sidney C.H. 1995. “Hairy Others: Ainu Identities in Japan; the Ainu, Photography and Modern Man.” In Racial Identities in East Asia, edited by Barry Sautman, 237-250. Hong Kong: Division of Social Science.
Cheung, Sidney C.H. 2003. “Ainu Culture in Transition.” Futures 35(9): 951-959. DOI: https://doi-org.proxy.library.ucsb.edu:9443/10.1016/S0016-3287(03)00051-X
Cheung, Sidney C.H. 2004. “Japanese Anthropology and Depictions of the Ainu.” In The Making of Anthropology in East and Southeast Asia, edited by Shinji Yamashita, Joseph Bosco and J.S. Eades, 136-151. New York: Berghahn Books. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.berghahnbooks.com/title/YamashitaMaking
Deriha, Kōji. 2014. “Trade and the Paradigm Shift on Ainu Hunting Practices.” Translated by ann-elise lewallen. In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson: 136-149. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Gayman, Jeffry. 2021. “Ethnicity, Indigeneity and Education: The Ainu of Japan.” In Routledge Handbook of Race and Ethnicity in Asia, edited by Michael Weiner. New York: Routledge.
Hanazaki, Kōhei. 1996. “Ainu Moshir and Yaponesia: Ainu and Okinawan Identities in Contemporary Japan.” Translated by Mark Hudson. In Multicultural Japan: Paleolithic to Postmodern, edited by Donald Denoon, Mark Hudson, Gavan McCormack, and Tessa Morris-Suzuki, 117-131. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hiwasaki, Lisa. 2000. “Ethnic Tourism in Hokkaido and the Shaping of Ainu Identity,” Pacific Affairs 73(3) Autumn: 393-412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2672026
Hudson, Mark. 1999. Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Hudson, Mark J. 2014. “Ainu and Hunter-Gatherer Studies.” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson, 117-135. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Hunter, Justin. 2015. “Vitalizing Traditions: Ainu Music and Dance and the Discourse of Indigeneity.” PhD Diss. University of Hawai’i.
Irimoto, Takahashi. 2004. “Creation of the Marimo Festival: Ainu Identity and Ethnic Symbiosis,” Senri Ethnological Studies 66: 11-38. DOI: http://doi.org/10.15021/00002684
Ito, Kinko. 2019a. “Golden Kamuy: Can This Popular Manga Contribute to Ainu Studies?” Japanese Studies Review 23: 155-168. Accessed May 25, 2021. https://asian.fiu.edu/projects-and-grants/japan-studies-review/journal-archive/volume-xxiii-2019/ito-kinko-golden-kamuy.pdf
Ito, Kinko. 2019b. Today’s Ainu: Tales from Hokkaido. Independently Published.
Kaoru Tezuka. 1998. “Long-Distance Trade Networks and Shipping in the Ezo Region.” Arctic Anthropology 35(1): 350-360. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40316475
lewallen, ann-elise. 2006. “Hands that Never Rest: Ainu Women, Cultural Revival, and Indigenous Politics in Japan.” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://www.proquest.com/docview/305302028
lewallen, ann-elise. 2007. “Bones of Contention: Negotiating Anthropological Ethics within Fields of Ainu Refusal,” Critical Asian Studies 39(4): 509-540. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14672710701686026
lewallen, ann-elise. 2014. “The Gender of Cloth: Ainu Women and Cultural Revitalization.” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson, 171-184. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
lewallen, ann-elise. 2016a. “‘Clamoring Blood’: The Materiality of Belonging in Modern Japan.” Critical Asian Studies 48(1): 50-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2015.1131400
lewallen, ann-elise. 2016c. The Fabric of Indigeneity: Ainu Identity, Gender, and Settler Colonialism in Japan. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research.
Lie, John. 2001. Multiethnic Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Maher, John C. 2005. “Metroethnicity, language, and the principle of Cool.” Int’l. J. Soc. Lang. 175/176: 83–102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2005.2005.175-176.83
Full text: Accessed May 18, 2021. http://johncmaher.weebly.com/uploads/1/5/9/5/15955968/metroethnicity_and_the_principle_of_cool.pdf
Martín, Marcos P. Centeno. 2017. “The Fight for Self-representation: Ainu Imaginary, Ethnicity and Assimilation Marcos.” Alphaville: Journal of Film and Screen Media. Issue 13(Summer): 69-89. Accessed May 18, 2021. http://www.alphavillejournal.com/Issue13/13_4Article_Centeno.pdf
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 2014. “Tourists, Anthropologists, and Visions of Indigenous Society in Japan,” in Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Mark J. Hudson, ann-alise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 45-66. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i.
Nakamura, Naohiro. 2007. “The Representation of Ainu Culture in the Japanese Museum System.” The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 2: 331-365. Accessed May 18, 2021: http://repository.usp.ac.fj/7232/1/The_representation_of_Ainu_culture_in_the_Japanese_museum_system.pdf
Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. 1972. “Spatial Concepts of the Ainu of the Northwest Coast of Southern Sakhalin.” American Anthropologist 74(3): 426-457. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/671527
Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. 1974. The Ainu of the Northwest Coast of Southern Sakhalin. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. 1976. “Regional Variations in Ainu Culture.” American Ethnologist 3(2): 297-329. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/643582
Okada, Mitsuharu Vincent. 2012. “The Plight of Ainu, Indigenous People of Japan.” Journal of Indigenous Social Development 1(1): 1-14. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/21976/v1i1_02okada.pdf
Okada, Mitsuharu and Kato, Hirofumi. 2014. Indigenous Heritage and Tourism: Theories and Practices on Utilizing the Ainu Heritage. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Center for Ainu and Indigenous Studies.
Peng, Fred C. C., with Robert Ricketts and Nario Imamura. 1974. “The Socioeconomic Status of the Ainu: The Past in the Present.” American Ethnologist 1(4): 731-750. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/643377
Peng, Fred C. C. and Peter Geiser. 1977. The Ainu: The Past in the Present. Hiroshima: Bunka Hyoron.
Sekiguchi, Yoshihiko. 2007. “Shutoken ni Ikiru Ainu Minzoku: ‘Taiwa’ no Chihei kara” (The Ainu who live in the metropolitan area: from the horizon of ‘dialogues’). Urayasu: Sohukan. (Japanese)
Watson, Mark K. 2010. “Diasporic Indigeneity: Place and the Articulation of Ainu Identity in Tokyo, Japan.” Environment and Planning A 42: 268-284. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1068%2Fa41112
Watson, Mark K. 2014a. “Tokyo Ainu and the Urban Indigenous Experience.” Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson, 69-85. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Watson, Mark K. 2014b. Japan’s Ainu Minority in Tokyo: Diasporic Indigeneity and Urban Politics. New York: Routledge.
Watson, Mark K., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark J. Hudson. 2014. “Beyond Ainu Studies: An Introduction.” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Hudson, Mark J., ann-elise lewallen, and Mark K. Watson, 1-22. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Yamada, Takako. 2003. “Anthropological Studies of the Ainu in Japan: Past and Present.” Japanese Review of Cultural Anthropology 4: 75–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14890/jrca.4.0_75
Hudson, Mark. 2004. “The Perverse Realities of Change: World System Incorporation and the Okhotsk Culture of Hokkaido.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 23(3): 290-308. DOI: https://doi-org.proxy.library.ucsb.edu:9443/10.1016/j.jaa.2004.05.002
Kato, Hirofumi. 2009. “Whose archaeology?: Decolonizing Archaeological Perspective in Hokkaido Island.” Journal of the Graduate School of Letters, 4, 47-55.
Kato, Hirofumi. 2017. “The Ainu and Japanese Archaeology: A Change of Perspective.” Japanese Journal of Archaeology 4: 185-190.
Bresner, Katie. 2009. “The Ainu as ‘Other’: Representations of the Ainu and Japanese Identity Before 1905.” PlatForum: Journal of Graduate Students in Anthropology, University of Victoria 10: 31-44. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/platforum/article/view/1106
Cheung, Sidney C.H. 1996. “Change of Ainu images in Japan: A reflexive study of pre‐war and post‐war photo‐images of Ainu.” Visual Anthropology, 9(1): 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/08949468.1996.9966688
Cheung, Sidney C. H. 1997. “Photographing the Ainu and the Emperor: Modernity in Meiji Japan.” The CUHK Journal of Humanities 1: 252-268. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://digitalrepository.lib.hku.hk/catalog/gx41sf88p#?c=&m=&s=&cv=&xywh=-1128%2C892%2C4054%2C1804
Cheung, Sidney C. H. 2000. “Men, Women and ‘Japanese’ as Outsiders: a Case Study of Postcards with Ainu Images.” Visual Anthropology 13: 227-255. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08949468.2000.9966801
Dubreuil, Chisato O. 2004. “Ainu-e Instructional Resources for the Study of Japan’s Other People.” Education About Asia 9(1): 9-17. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.asianstudies.org/publications/eaa/archives/ainu-e-instructional-resources-for-the-study-of-japans-other-people/
Harrison, Scott. 2008. The Indigenous Ainu and the Northern Territories Dispute. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
Harrison, Scott. 2009. “The Indigenous Ainu of Japan at the Time of the Åland Settlement.” In Northern Territories, Asia-Pacific Regional Conflicts and the Åland Experience, edited by Kimie Hara and Geoffrey Jukes. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203880166
Harrison, Scott Michael. 2014a. “The Cold War and Indigenous People.” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Waterloo. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/handle/10012/8571
Harrison, Scott. 2014b. “The Cold War, the San Francisco System, and Indigenous Peoples.” In The San Francisco System and Its Legacies: Continuation, Transformation, and Historical Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific, edited by Kimie Hara. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315759012
Hennessey, John L. 2019. “A colonial trans-Pacific partnership: William Smith Clark, David Pearce Penhallow and Japanese settler colonialism in Hokkaido.” Settler Colonial Studies. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/2201473X.2019.1627697
Hirano, Katsuya. 2009. “The Politics of Colonial Translation: On the Narrative of the Ainu as a ‘Vanishing Ethnicity’.” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 7(4): 1-16. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://apjjf.org/-Katsuya-Hirano/3013/article.html
Hirano, Katsuya. 2015. “Thanatopolitics in the Making of Japan’s Hokkaido: Settler Colonialism and Primitive Accumulation.” Critical Historical Studies 2(2): 181-218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/683094
Howell, David L. 1995. Capitalism from Within: Economy, Society, and the State in a Japanese Fishery. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Howell, David L. 2004. “Making ‘Useful Citizens’ of Ainu Subjects in Early Twentieth-Century Japan.” Journal of Asian Studies 63(1): 5-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S002191180400004X
Howell, David L. 2005. Geographies of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Howell, David L. 2014. “Is Ainu History Japanese History?” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Mark Hudson, ann-elise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 101-116. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Irish, Ann B. 2009. Hokkaido: A History of Ethnic Transition and Development on Japan’s Northern Island. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Jacobson, Justin P. 2008. “Time and the Ainu: Japanese Nation-Building and the Conceptualization of Difference.” Historical Geography 36: 163-181. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://ejournals.unm.edu/index.php/historicalgeography/article/view/2895/2374
Jolliffe, Pia Maria. 2019. Prisons and Forced Labour in Japan: The Colonization of Hokkaido, 1881-1894. London: Routledge.
lewallen, ann-elise. 2016b. “‘Intimate Frontiers’: Disciplining Ethnicity and Ainu Women’s Sexual Subjectivity in Early Colonial Hokkaido.” In The Affect of Difference: Race and Identity in Asian Empire, edited by Christ Hanscom and Dennis Washburn, 19-37. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i press.
Loy, Christopher. 2015. “Cultivating Ezo: Indigenous Innovation and Ecological Change during Japan’s Bakumatsu Era.” Asian Ethnology 74(1): 63-85. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/43610652
Lu, Sidney X. 2016. “Colonizing Hokkaido and the Origin of Japanese Trans-Pacific Expansion, 1869-1894.” Japanese Studies 36(2): 251-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10371397.2016.1230834
Lu, Sidney X. 2019a. “Eastward Ho! Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido and the Making of Japanese Migration to the American West, 1869-1888.” The Journal of Asian Studies 78(3): 521-547. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021911819000147
Lu, Sidney X. 2019b. The Making of Japanese Settler Colonialism: Malthusianism and Trans-Pacific Migration, 1868-1961. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mason, Michele M. 2012. Dominant Narratives of Colonial Hokkaido and Imperial Japan: Envisioning the Periphery and the Modern Nation-State. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Medak-Saltzman, Danika. 2010. “Transnational Indigenous Exchange: Rethinking Global Interactions of Indigenous Peoples at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition.” American Quarterly 62(3): 591-615. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40983421
Miyajima, Toshimitsu. 1998. Land of Elms: The History, Culture, and Present Day Situation of the Ainu People, translated by Robert Witmer. Etobicoke: United Church Publishing House.
Morioka, Kenji. 2011. “Comparison of ‘Ainu Photo Collections’: Collections Owned by the Nibutani Ainu Culture Museum in Biratori and the National Museum of Japanese History.” National Museum of Japanese History Research Report, No. 168: 151-196. (Japanese)
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 1994. “Creating the Frontier: Border, Identity and History in Japan’s Far North.” East Asian History 7: 1-24. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/IELAPA.960706816
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 1996a. “Divided Lives: A Story of Indigenous People and the Pacific War.” Asia-Pacific Magazine 1: 17-21.
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 1996b (2001 reprint). “A Descent into the Past: The Frontier in the Construction of Japanese History.” In Multicultural Japan: Paleolithic to Postmodern, edited by Donald Denoon, Mark Hudson, Gavan McCormack, and Tessa Morris-Suzuki, 81-94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139084901.006
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 1998. “Sakhalin: On the Frontiers of Memory.” Meanjin 57: 525-541. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/informit.030993299006541
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa, 2020a. “Indigenous Diplomacy: Sakhalin Ainu (Enchiw) in the Shaping of Modern East Asia (Part 1: Traders and Travelers).” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 18(22): 1-20. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://apjjf.org/2020/22/Morris-Suzuki.html
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa, 2020b. “Indigenous Diplomacy: Sakhalin Ainu (Enchiw) in the Shaping of Modern East Asia (Part 2: Voices and Silences).” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 18(23): 1-16. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://apjjf.org/2020/23/Morris-Suzuki.html
Oguma, Eiji. 2017. The Boundaries of ‘the Japanese’: Volume 2: Korea, Taiwan and the Ainu 1868-1945, translated by Leonie R. Strickland. Tokyo: Trans Pacific Press.
Ölschleger, Hans Dieter. 2014. “Ainu Ethnography: Historical Representations in the West,” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives, edited by Mark Hudson, ann-elise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 25-44. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Roellinghoff, Michael. 2020. “Osteo-Hermeneutics: Ainu Racialization, De-Indigenization, and Bone Theft in Japanese Hokkaido.” Settler Colonial Studies 10(3): 295-310. https://doi.org/10.1080/2201473X.2020.1760432
Sasaki, Toshikazu. 1999. “Ainu-e: a historical review.” In Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People, edited by W. W. Fitzhugh & C. O. Dubreuil, 79–85. Los Angeles: Smithsonian Institution in association with University of Washington Press.
Siddle, Richard. 1996. Race, Resistance and the Ainu of Japan. Abingdon: Routledge.
Siddle, Richard. 1997. “The Ainu and the discourse of ‘race’.” In The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, edited by F. Dikötter, 136-157. London: HURST & COMPANY.
Siddle, Richard. 1999a. “Ainu history: An overview.” In Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People, edited by W. W. Fitzhugh & C. O. Dubreuil, 67–73. Los Angeles: Smithsonian Institution in association with University of Washington Press.
Vanstone, James W. 1993. “The Ainu Group at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904.” Arctic Anthropology 30(2): 77-91. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40316339
Walker, Brett. 1996. “Reappraising the Sakkoku Paradigm: The Ezo Trade and the Extension of Tokugawa Political Space into Hokkaido.” Journal of East Asian Studies 30(2): 169-192.
Walker, Brett, 1999. “The Early Modern Japanese State and Ainu Vaccinations: Redefining the Body Politic 1799-1868,” Past & Present 163: 121-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/past/163.1.121
Walker, Brett. 2001. The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590-1800. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Walker, Brett L. 2004. “Meiji Modernization, Scientific Agriculture, and the Destruction of Japan’s Hokkaido Wolf.” Environmental History 9(2): 248-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3986086
Yaguchi, Yujin. 2000. “Remembering a More Layered Past in Hokkaido: Americans, Japanese, and the Ainu.” The Japanese Journal of American Studies, 11: 109-128.
Ziomek, Kirsten L. 2014. “The 1903 Human Pavilion: Colonial Realities and Subaltern Subjectivities in Twentieth-Century Japan.” The Journal of Asian Studies 73(2): 493-516. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021911814000011
Ziomek, Kirsten L. 2019. Lost Histories: Recovering the Lives of Japan’s Colonial People. Cambridge and London: The Harvard University Asia Center.
Creighton, Millie. 1995. “The Non-Vanishing Ainu: A Damming Development Project, Internationalization and Japan’s Indigenous Other.” American Asian Review 13(2): 69-96.
Creighton, Millie. 2003. “May the Saru River Flow: The Nibutani Dam and the Resurging Tide of the Ainu Identity Movement.” In Japan at the Millennium: Joining Past and Future, edited by David W. Edgington, 120-143. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Ioannides, Michael J. 2017. “Colonization, Statemaking, and Development: A Political Ecology of the Saru River Development Project, Hokkaido, Japan.” MA thesis, Oregon State University. Accessed May 17, 2021. https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/ws859m386
Iwasaki-Goodman, Masami. 2013. “Tasty Tonoto and Not-So-Tasty Tonoto: Fostering Traditional Food Culture among the Ainu people in the Saru River region, Japan.” In Indigenous Peoples’ Food Systems & Wellbeing, edited by Harriet Kuhnlein, Bill Erasmus, Dina Spigelski, and Barbara Burlingame, 221-234. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment.
Iwasaki-Goodman, Masami and Koichi Kaizawa. 2004. “The First Impact Assessment of a Development Project on Ainu Culture.” Paper presented at the International Association for Impact Assessment, Vancouver, Canada, April 27, 2004.
Kaizawa, Koichi. 1999. “Shishirimuka: A Saru River Tale.” In Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People, edited by William W. Fitzhugh and Chisato O. Dubreuil, 355-358. Los Angeles: Perpetua Press. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://library.si.edu/digital-library/book/ainuspiritofnort00wash
Kaizawa, Koichi. 2005. “Rivers and the Ainu People.” In Conserving Cultural and Biological Diversity: The Role of Sacred Natural Sites and Cultural Landscapes, 136-140. International Symposium, Tokyo, 30 May-2 June 2005. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2006-053.pdf
Kaizawa, Koichi. 2018. “Cikornay National Trust: Emancipation of Our Ainu land from Colonial Land Use and for the Enjoyment of Ainu Culture,” translated by Masumi Tanaka. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 53-57. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Kosaka, Yōsuke. 2018. “Revival of Salmon Resources and Restoration of a Traditional Ritual of the Ainu, the Indigenous People of Japan.” In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 69-78. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
lewallen, ann-elise. 2016d. “Signifying Ainu Space: Reimagining Shiretoko’s Landscapes through Indigenous Ecotourism.” Humanities 5(3): 59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/h5030059
Maruyama, Hiroshi. 2012. “Ainu Landowners’ Struggle for Justice and the Illegitimacy of the Nibutani Dam Project in Hokkaido Japan.” International Community Law Review 14: 63-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/187197312X617692
Maruyama, Hiroshi. 2013. “Disregard for the Conservation of Ainu Culture and the Environment: The Biratori Dam Project and Japan’s Current Policy toward the Ainu.” AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous People 9(1): 74-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F117718011300900106
Maruyama, Hiroshi. 2016. “Threats to Human Security Imposed on the Ainu in Biratori, Hokkaido, Japan.” In Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security: Perspectives of Northern Indigenous Peoples, edited by Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei, 90-104. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff.
Nakamura, Naohiro. 2008. “An ‘Effective’ Involvement of Indigenous People in Environmental Impact Assessment: The Cultural Impact Assessment of the Saru River Region, Japan.” Australian Geographer 39(4): 427-444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00049180802419179
Nakamura, Naohiro. 2013. “Towards a Culturally Sustainable Environmental Impact Assessment: The Protection of Ainu Cultural Heritage in the Saru River Cultural Impact Assessment, Japan.” Geographical Research 51(1): 26-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-5871.2012.00759.x
Nakamura, Yasutoshi. 1996. “Flooding Ainu Lands: Test Filling Begins in the Nibutani Dam.” AMPO: Japan-Asia Quarterly Review 27(2-3).
Watanabe, Hitoshi. 1973. The Ainu Ecosystem: Environment and Group Structure. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.worldcat.org/title/ainu-ecosystem-environment-and-group-structure/oclc/609876
Ang, Roslynn. 2019. “Indigenous Survival Politics in the Promotion of a National Discourse.” Anthropology News, September 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/AN.1260
Aoki, E., Kitahara, K., Kayano, S., & Kaizawa, K. 2006. “Voices of Resilience and Resistance: The Ainu Peoples of Hokkaido, Japan.” In Indigenous Peoples’ Wisdom and Power: Affirming our Knowledge through Narratives, edited by Julian E. Kunnie and Nomalungelo I. Goduka, 161-174. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315252414
Bukh, Alexander. 2009a. “Identity, Foreign Policy and the ‘Other’: Japan’s ‘Russia’.” European Journal of International Relations 15(2): 319-345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1354066109103141
Bukh, Alexander. 2009b. Japan’s National Identity and Foreign Policy: Russia as Japan’s ‘Other’. London: Routledge. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.routledge.com/Japans-National-Identity-and-Foreign-Policy-Russia-as-Japans-Other/Bukh/p/book/9780415666183
Cotterill, Simon. 2011. “Ainu Success: the Political and Cultural Achievements of Japan’s Indigenous Minority.” The Asia-Pacific Journal 9(12-3). Accessed July 1, 2021. https://apjjf.org/2011/9/12/Simon-Cotterill/3500/article.html
Grunow, Tristan R., Fuyubi Nakamura, Katsuya Hirano, Mai Ishihara, ann-elise lewallen, Sheryl Lightfoot, Mayunkiki, Danika Medak-Saltzman, Terri-Lynn Williams-Davidson, and Tomoe Yahata. 2019. “Hokkaido 150: Settler Colonialism and Indigeneity in Modern Japan and Beyond.” Critical Asian Studies 51(4): 597-636, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2019.1665291
Kayano, Shigeru and Hiroshi Tanaka. 1999. Ainu minzoku don hanran: Nibutani Damu saiban no kiroku (アイヌ民族ドン反乱：二風谷ダム裁判の記録；Ainu Rebellion：Record of the Nibutani Dam Trial). Tokyo: Sanseido. (Japanese).
Komai, Eléonore. 2021. “The Ainu and Indigenous politics in Japan: Negotiating agency, institutional stability, and change.” The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics, 1-24. doi:10.1017/rep.2021.16
Koshida, Kiyokazu. 1992. “From a ‘Perishing People’ to Self-Determination.” AMPO: Japan-Asia Quarterly Review 24(3): 2-6.
Ludwig, Noel A. 1994. “An Ainu Homeland: An Alternative Solution for the Northern Territories/Southern Kuriles Imbroglio.” Ocean & Coastal Management 25: 1-29. DOI: https://doi-org.proxy.library.ucsb.edu:9443/10.1016/0964-5691(94)90066-3
Medak-Saltzman, Danika. 2015. “Empire’s Haunted Logics: Comparative Colonialisms and the Challenges of Incorporating Indigeneity.” Critical Ethnic Studies 1(2): 11-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5749/jcritethnstud.1.2.0011
Mizuno, Takaaki. 1987. “Ainu, the Invisible Minority.” Japan Quarterly 34(2): 143-148. Accessed May 18, 2021. https://www.proquest.com/openview/007d0e8482cdc1602fbcc2258a3a0dcd/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1821452
Nakamura, Naohiro. 2015a. “Being Indigenous in a Non-Indigenous Environment: Identity Politics of the Dogai Ainu and New Indigenous Policies of Japan.” Environment and Planning A 47: 660-675. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1068%2Fa130003p
Nakamura, Naohiro. 2015b. “What Is a Community’s Desire? A Critical Look at Participatory Research Projects with Indigenous Communities.” Social & Cultural Geography 16(2): 165-182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2014.959549
Nakamura Naohiro. 2019. “Redressing injustice of the past: the repatriation of Ainu human remains,” Japan Forum, 31(3): 358-377. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09555803.2018.1441168
Sala, Gary Clark. 1975. “Protest and the Ainu of Hokkaido.” The Japan Interpreter 10(1): 44-65.
Shimizu, Yuji. 2018. “Towards a Respectful Repatriation of Stolen Ainu Ancestral Remains.” In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik:115-120. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Siddle, Richard. 1997. “Ainu: Japan’s Indigenous People.” In Japan’s Minorities: The Illusion of Homogeneity, edited by Michael Weiner, 17-49. London: Routledge. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.routledge.com/Japans-Minorities-The-illusion-of-homogeneity/Weiner/p/book/9780415772648
Siddle, Richard. 1999. “From Assimilation to Indigenous Rights: Ainu Resistance Since 1869.” In Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People, edited by W. W. Fitzhugh & C. O. Dubreuil, 108–115. Los Angeles: Smithsonian Institution and University of Washington Press.
Siddle, Richard. 2003. “The Limits to Citizenship in Japan: Multiculturalism, Indigenous Rights and the Ainu.” Citizenship Studies 7(4): 447–462. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1362102032000134976
Siddle, Richard. 2006. The Making of Ainu Moshiri: Japan’s Indigenous Nationalism and its Cultural Fictions. In Nationalisms in Japan, edited by N. Shimazu, 122-142. New York: Routledge.
Ukaji, Shizue. 2011. Subete wo Asu no Kate toshite: Imakoso Ainu no Chie to Yuki wo (すべてを明日の糧：今こそアイヌの知恵と勇気を; Making everything resources for tomorrow: Knowledge and courage of the Ainu). Tokyo: Seiryu shuppan. (Japanese)
Ukaji, Shizue. 2018. “The Racing of Ainu Hearts: Our Wish for One Salmon River,” translated by Miku Maeda. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 79-83. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018
Uzawa, Kanako. 2005. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2005, 279-281. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2006. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2006, 274-277. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2007. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2007, 286-290. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2008. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2008, 248-251. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2009. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2009, 278-282. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2010. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2010, 300-303. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako and W. Lonnie Ding-Everson. 2016. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2016, 232-235. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako and W. Lonnie Ding-Everson. 2017. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2017, 304-307. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2018. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2018, 258-261. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako and Gayman, Jeff. 2020. “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2020, 267-273. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Uzawa, Kanako and Jeff Gayman, Jeff. 2021 (In Press). “Japan.” In Indigenous World 2021. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.
Advisory Council for Future Ainu Policy. 2009. “Final Report.” Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. Accessed May 17, 2021. http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ainu/dai10/siryou1_en.pdf
Ichikawa, Morihiro. 2001. “Understanding the Fishing Rights of the Ainu of Japan: Lessons Learned from American Indian Law, the Japanese Constitution, and International Law.” Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 12(2): 245-301. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.ecolex.org/details/literature/indigenous-peoples-the-environment-and-law-an-anthology-mon-079967/
Irimoto, Takashi. 2000. “Political Movement, Legal Reformation, and Transformation of Ainu Identity.” In Hunters & Gatherers in the Modern World: Conflict, Resistance, and Self-Determination, edited by Peter Schweitzer, Megan Biesele, & Robert Hitchcock. New York and Oxford: Bergham Books. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1c0gm2f
Kawashima, Saeko. 2004. “The Right to Effective Participation and the Ainu People.” International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 11: 21-74. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24675256
Kikkawa, Hitoshi. 2002. “Nibutani damu jiken hanketsu ni tsuite (On the Nibutani Dam Decision of 1997: Summary and Comments).” Kenpō ronsō (Constitutional Review) 8: 119-134.
Kiriyama, Takanobu and Osukada, Yuko. 2017. “The Ainu in Japan: The Ainu and International Law.” Journal of Law and Politics of Osaka City University 63(4). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3170698
Levin, Mark A. 1999. “Japan: Kayano et al. v. Hokkaido Expropriation Committee (The Nibutani Dam Decision).” International Legal Materials 38(2): 394-429. DOI: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20698889
Levin, Mark. 2001. “Essential Commodities and Racial Justice: Using Constitutional Protection of Japan’s Indigenous Ainu People to Inform Understanding of the United States and Japan.” New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 33(2): 419-526.
Nagai, Fumiya. 2019. “Implementing the rights of Indigenous people in Japan: implications and challenges of forest certification for the Ainu.” The International Journal of Human Rights 23(1-2): 249-256. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2019.1581770
Narita, Tokuhei. 1984. “Discrimination Against Ainus and the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination.” In The United Nations, Japan and Human Rights, edited by Buraku Liberation Research Institute, 135-139. Osaka: Buraku Liberation Research Institute. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.worldcat.org/title/united-nations-japan-and-human-rights-to-commemorate-the-35th-anniversary-of-the-universal-declaration-of-human-rights/oclc/12572756
Osakada, Yuko. 2020. “An examination of arguments over the Ainu Policy Promotion Act of Japan based on the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.” The International Journal of Human Rights. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2020.1811692
Porter, Crystal. 2008. “After the Ainu Shinpō: The United Nations and the Indigenous People of Japan.” New Voices in Japanese Studies 2: 201-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.21159/nv.02.10
Sapporo District Court. (1999). Kayano and Others v. Hokkaido Expropriation Committee
(Nibutani Dam Decision) 27 March 1997. 38 International Legal Materials 394. Accessed May 17, 2021. https://www.tjsl.edu/slomansonb/Nibutani.pdf
Siddle, Richard. 2002. “An Epoch-Making Event? The 1997 Ainu Cultural Promotion Act and its Impact.” Japan Forum 14(3): 405-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0955580022000008763
Sonohara, Toshiaki. 1997. “Toward a Genuine Redress for an Unjust Past: The Nibutani Dam Case.” Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 4(2): 1–43. Accessed May 17, 2021. http://classic.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MurUEJL/1997/16.html
Stevens, Georgina. 2001. “The Ainu and Human Rights: Domestic and International Legal Protections.” Japanese Studies 21(2): 181-198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10371390120074354
Stevens, Georgina. 2008. “Resolution Calling for Recognition of the Ainu People as an Indigenous People.” Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law 9(1): 49–50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157181508785822769
Stevens, Georgina. 2014. “The Ainu, Law, and Legal Mobilization, 1984-2009.” In Beyond Ainu Studies: Changing Academic and Public Perspectives edited by Mark Hudson, ann-elise lewallen and Mark K. Watson, 200-222. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Tsunemoto, Teruki. 2001. “Rights and Identities of Ethnic Minorities in Japan: Indigenous Ainu and Resident Koreans.” Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law 2(1): 119-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/15718150120954894
Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. 2016. “Consciousness Survey on the Degree of Public Understanding of Ainu people.” Tokyo: Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. Retrieved from https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ainusuishin/pdf/rikaido_houkoku160322.pdf (Japanese)
Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. n.d. (a). “Members of the Council for Ainu Policy Promotion.” Tokyo: Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ainusuishin/pdf/members_e.pdf
Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. n.d. (a). “Members of the Council for Ainu Policy Promotion.” Tokyo: Council for Ainu Policy Promotion. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ainusuishin/pdf/members_e.pdf
Hokkaido Department of Environment & Lifestyle. 2006. The Report of Hokkaido Ainu Living Conditions Survey. Accessed May 26, 2021. http://www.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp/ks/ass/grp/H18houkokusyo.pdf
Hokkaido Department of Environment & Lifestyle. 2017. The Report of Hokkaido Ainu Living Conditions Survey. Accessed May 26, 2021. http://www.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp/ks/ass/H29_ainu_living_conditions_survey_.pdf
House of Representatives of Japan, The. 1997. Law for the Promotion of the Ainu Culture and for the Dissemination and Advocacy for the Traditions of the Ainu and the Ainu Culture. Accessed May 26, 2021. http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/14019970514052.htm
Ainu Association of RERA, The. 2001. “Statement by the Ainu Association of RERA.” Nineteenth Session of the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations, July 23-27, 2001. Accessed May 26, 2021. http://cendoc.docip.org/collect/cendocdo/index/assoc/HASH5992/7ff1e9c0.dir/218_AS.pdf
Ainu Resource Centre and Shimin Gaikou Centre. 2007. “Situation and Issues of Ainu in Kanto region.” Joint Statement from the Sixth Session of the United Nations, Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues May 21 , 2007. Accessed May 26, 2021. cendoc.docip.org/collect/cendocdo/index/assoc/HASH3862/845fd5a8.dir/PF07ainu211.pdf
Kimura, Fumio. 2020. “Hokkaido Ainu,” 13th Session of EMRIP/Pacific and Asia Virtual Regional Meeting. Accessed Sept. 18, 2021. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/IPeoples/EMRIP/Session13/submissions/AP/2020-12-01-statement-hokkaido-ainu.pdf
Uzawa, Kanako. 2007. “The Sixth Session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.” CONNECT to the Fight against Discrimination and Racism (A journal published by The International Movement against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism, Tokyo, Japan) 11(3): 17-19.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2008. “Japan: Identifying Ainu.” In Indigenous & Tribal Peoples’ Rights in Practice: A Guide to ILO Convention No.169, A Report Promoting ILO Convention No.169, edited by Birgitte Feiring. Geneva: International Labour Standards Department.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2019. “World Heritage Property: Shiretoko.” 43rd session of the World Heritage Committee organized by UNESCO, Baku, Azerbaijan, July 2019.
Uzawa, Kanako. 2019. “Case Study from Ainu, Japan.” Paper presented at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Asia Pacific Climate Week, Bangkok, Thailand, September 2019.
Ishihara, Mai. 2021. “Invisible Indigenous Descendants in Hokkaido, Japan.” Paper presented at the David Lam Center of Simon Fraser University, March 25, 2021. Accessed May 28, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2gq0e3Cqog
lewallen, ann-elise. 2017. “Ainu Indigenous Modernity in Settler Japan.” Paper Presented at the University of Michigan Center for Japanese Studies, November 16, 2017. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iir7y5dV_Vs
lewallen, ann-elise. 2021. “Ainu Indigenous Modernity in Japan: Bringing Our Ancestors Home.” Paper presented at the University of San Francisco Center for Asia Pacific Studies, February 10, 2021. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3h_jifho3s
Shimizu, Yuji, Satoshi Hatakeyama, and Hiroshi Maruyama. 2019. “Recognition at Last for the Ainu Community?” Panel Discussion for the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Japan. Accessed May 26, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8fff2pu-9s
Tsunemoto, Teruki. 2011. “Recent Development of Ainu Policy in Japan.” Paper presented at the Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage Mid-Term Conference, September 30-October 1 2011. Accessed April 27, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YTnHoPvQ_M
“Ainu Woman Sets a Stage for Understanding”
“La Voix Du Nord”: Interview with Dr. Kanako Uzawa in Tempura Magazine
Fitzhugh, William W. and Chisato O. Dubreuil (eds). 1999. Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People. edited by Los Angeles: Perpetua Press.
Iritomo,Takeshi (ed.). Ainu Bibliography. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://www.worldcat.org/title/ainu-bibliography/oclc/925543897?referer=di&ht=edition