アイヌ研究

「アイヌ研究」と聞くと、何を思い浮かべますか?

アイヌの人々が書いたものを読む、あるいは、アイヌの人々の日常生活に関する文献を探す上で苦労した経験はありますか?  AinuTodayは、アイヌの人々自身やアイヌ研究者が、アイヌの日常生活について書いた文献や情報を紹介します。

アイヌ民族とは誰なのか

アイヌは日本の北方民族です。日本政府は2008年に公式に先住民族と認めました。アイヌ語で、「アイヌ」とは人間を意味します。アイヌの人々は、歴史的に千島諸島、南サハリン、北海道、本州の一部に住んできました。アイヌ民族は狩猟や漁労、採集を伝統的な生業としてきました。こうした活動は、今でもアイヌの人々の現代的な生活様式の一部として残っています。こうした文化的実践と伝統的知識は、自然とわたしたちの生活様式を見直す上で新たな機会をもたらしています。一方、アイヌ民族は、世界の多くの先住民族と同じように、植民地政府による同化政策で文化や言語の喪失を経験し、現代社会を生きる上で様々な困難な状況に置かれていると言う事実もあります。

学術界では、リチャード・シドルが日本における学術界での議論が「人種」や社会進化論(ダーウィニズム)の言説に強く影響を受けたことを指摘しています(Siddle 1996)。つまり、この影響により、アイヌ民族は日本国内で魅力的な研究の「対象」となっていきました。

では、今を生きるアイヌ民族の生活とはどのようなものなのでしょうか?アイヌの人々の現代生活は日本社会と深く交わっています。アイヌ出自の人々は日本の教育システムで勉強し、日本語を母語としています。日本ではエスニック出自をもとにした調査はないので、日本におけるアイヌ民族の人口数は不確定なままです。そんな中、アイヌ民族の政治運動とアイヌ研究は、少しずつ変わってきています。今までとは違うアイヌ自身が伝えていく研究、権利問題、芸術などの新しい表現方法が形成しつつあるのです。

オンライン講義

アイヌ 150年のレジリアンス:  講師 鵜澤加那子(英語) 

カナダブリティッシュコロンビア大学 日本研究センター

アイヌ 日本の先住民族 講師 貝澤太一の目から見た差別の歴史: (日本語&英語)

ハンターカレッジ ニューヨーク

21世紀にアイヌであると言う意味は?アイヌ自分らしさ 講師 鵜澤加那子(英語)

カナダサイモンフレーザー大学 デイビットラムセンター  

リソース

編集者注:太字・ 下線付き書体の文言 はアイヌプリです。アイヌの人々の間でアイヌプリという言葉はアイヌの伝統的な方法を実践・実行する行為として従来は説明され、理解されてきましたが、私たちはアイヌの在り方、やり方を表すためにアイヌプリという言葉を使います。言い換えれば、アイヌプリとは先住民族性のことであり、自己決定や、外部からの干渉を受けずに自分たちの存在や経験の表現の仕方を決定する能力を含意すると私たちは考えています。 このようなアイヌプリの理解によって、日本各地や海外に住むアイヌの人々は、アイヌであることの意味に関する本質主義的表象から自分たちを解放することができます。

先住民族の権利に関する文献

  1. 上村英明(1987)『北の海の交易者たち――アイヌ民族の社会経済史』同文館
  2. 上村英明(1992)『先住民族――「コロンブス」と闘う人びとの歴史と現在』解放出版社
  3. 藤岡美恵子・中野憲志編、上村英明(監修)(2004)『グローバル時代の先住民族――「先住民族の一〇年」とは何だったのか』法律文化社
  4. 上村英明(2008) 「『先住民族の権利に関する国連宣言』獲得への長い道のり」『PRIME』第27号
  5. 上村英明(2008) 『アイヌ民族の視点からみた「先住民族の権利に関する国際連合宣言」の解説と利用法』市民外交センター
  6. 上村英明・木村真希子・塩原良和編著(2013)『市民の外交――先住民族と歩んだ30年』法政大学出版局 
  7. 上村英明(2015)『新・先住民族の「近代史」』法律文化社
  8. 植木哲也(2008)『学問の暴力――アイヌ墓地はなぜあばかれたか』春風社
  9. 市川守弘(2019)『アイヌの法的地位と国の不正義――遺骨返還問題と<アメリカンインディアン法>から考える<アイヌ先住権>』寿郎社
  10. 先住民族の10年ニュース バックナンバー
  11. 貝澤耕一・丸山博・松名隆・奥野恒久(2011)『アイヌ民族の復権――先住民族と築く新たな社会』法律文化社
  12. (財)アジア・太平洋人権情報センター(1997)『国連人権システムの変動――アジア・太平洋へのインパクト』現代人文社

先住民族の権利宣言、法律に関する文献

  1. 先住民族の権利宣言研究グループ編/著(2004)『先住民族の権利宣言――国連案の内容と争点』ウハノッカの会
  2. 小坂田裕子(2017)『先住民族と国際法――剥奪の歴史から権利の承認へ』信山社
  3. 渡部茂己(2009)『国際人権法』国院書院

アイヌ文化、歴史、食、生活様式関連文献

  1. アイヌ民族博物館(監修)(1993)『アイヌ文化の基礎知識』草風館
  2. 石原真衣編著(2021)『アイヌからみた北海道150年』北海道大学出版会
  3. 大野徹人(2017)『アポイのふもとから――アイヌ民族の文化と歴史へのいざない』アポイ岳ファンクラブ
  4. 植木哲也(2015)『植民学の記憶――アイヌ差別と学問の責任』緑風出版
  5. 小熊英二(1998)『日本人の境界――沖縄・アイヌ・台湾・朝鮮植民地支配から復帰運動まで』新曜社
  6. 小熊英二(1995)『単一民族神話の起源――日本人の自画像の系譜』新曜社
  7. 北原次郎太(監修)(2014)『アイヌの世界を旅する』太陽の地図帖 
  8. 関口明・田端宏・桑原真人・滝澤正(2015)『アイヌ民族の歴史』山川出版社
  9. 瀬川拓郎(1994)『アイヌの世界』講談社選書メチエ
  10. 計良智子(1995)『フチの伝えるこころ――アイヌの女の四季』寿郎社
  11. 田端宏・桑原信人(監修)(2000)『アイヌ民族の歴史と文化――教育指導の手引』山川出版社
  12. 北海道大学アイヌ・先住民研究センター編(2010)『アイヌ研究の現在と未来』北海道大学出版会
  13. リチャード・シドル(著)、マーク・ウィンチェスター(翻訳)(2021)『アイヌ通史:「蝦夷」から先住民族へ』岩波書店

自伝、エッセイ関連文献

  1. 石原真衣(2020)『〈沈黙〉の自伝的民族誌 (オートエスノグラフィー) サイレント・アイヌの痛みと救済の物語』北海道大学出版会
  2. 宇梶静江(2011)『すべてを明日の糧として』清流出版
  3. 萱野茂(2021)『完本アイヌの碑』朝日文庫
  4. 佐々木昌雄(2008)『幻視するアイヌ』草風館

アイヌ口承文芸関連文献

  1. 久保寺逸彦編著(1977)『アイヌ叙事詩神謡・聖伝の研究』岩波書店
  2. 知里真志保(1978)『アイヌ神謡集』岩波書店
  3. 知里真志保(1981)『アイヌ民集』岩波書店
  4. 萱野茂(2005)『新訂復刻ウウェぺケㇾ集大成』在団法人日本伝統文化新興財団
  5. 萱野茂(1998)『萱野茂のアイヌ神話修成』在団法人日本伝統文化新興財団
  6. 萱野茂(2020)『アイヌと神々の謡』山と渓谷社

アイヌ語学習関連文献

  1. 中川裕(2021)『ニューエクスプレス プラス アイヌ語』白水社
  2. 中川裕(2014)『カムイユカㇻを聞いてアイヌ語を学ぶ』白水社
  3. 佐藤知己(2008)『アイヌ語文法の基礎』大学書林

芸術関連文献

  1. 宇井眞紀子(2001)『アイヌときどき日本人』写真集 社会評論社

関東アイヌ関連文献

  1. 関東ウタリ会編(1997)『アイヌからの呼びかけ』関東ウタリ会
  2. 小笠原信之(1990)『しょっぱい河――東京に生きるアイヌたち』記録社
  3. 関口由彦(2007)『首都圏に生きるアイヌ民族――「対話の地平から」』草風館
  4. レラの会(1997)『レラ・チセへの道――こうして東京にアイヌ料理ができた』現代企画室

その他

  1. 札幌大学ウレシパクラブ(2013)『ウレシパ オルシペ――アイヌ文化で育てあう日々』一般社団法人 札幌大学ウレシパクラブ

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Ishihara, Mai. 2018. “Chinmoku wo tou: ‘sairento Ainu’ toiu mou hitotsu no senjūmin mondai (Calling into Silence: “Silent Ainu” as Another Issue of the Current Indigenous Situation).” Journal of the Center for Northern Humanities 11: 3–21. Accessed 10 June 2019. https://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/70071/1/11_02_ishihara.pdf (Japanese)

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Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. 2001. “Northern Lights: The Making and Unmaking of Karafuto Identity.” Journal of Asian Studies 60(3): 645-671.

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Tahara, Ryoko. 2018. “Ainu Women in the Past and Now,” translated by Hiroshi Maruyama. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 151-156. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018

Ukaji, Shizue. 2018. “A Quest for What We Ainu Are,” translated by Hiroshi Maruyama. In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 169-173. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018

Uzawa, Kanako. 2018. “Everyday Acts of Resurgence and Diasporic Indigeneity among the Ainu of Tokyo.” In Indigenous Efflorescence: Beyond Revitalization in Sapmi and Ainu Mosir, edited by Gerald Roche, Hiroshi Maruyama, and Åsa Virdi Kroik, 179-203. Acton: ANU Press. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22459/IE.2018

Uzawa, Kanako. 2019a. “What Does Ainu Cultural Revitalization Mean to Ainu and Wajin Youth in the 21st Century? Case Study of Urespa as a Place to Learn Ainu culture in the City of Sapporo, Japan.” AlterNative 15(2): 168-179. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1177180119846665

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Uzawa, Kanako and Mark K. Watson. 2020a. “Urespa (“Growing Together”): The Remaking of Ainu-Wajin Relations in Japan through an Innovative Social Venture.” Asian Anthropology 19(1): 53-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1683478X.2019.1699599

Uzawa, Kanako. 2020b. “‘Crafting our Future Together’: Urban Diasporic Indigeneity from an Ainu Perspective in Japan.” Ph.D. diss., The Arctic University of Norway (UiT). DOI: https://hdl.handle.net/10037/17182

Antiga Edizioni (publishing house). 2018. Contemporary Japanese Artists: Ainu. Grafiche Antiga Spa, Italy: Imago Mundi Luciano Benetton Collection. Accessed May 18, 2021. http://imagomundiart.com/collections/ainu-contemporary-japanese-artists (English, Japanese, and Italian)

Committee to Organize “Exhibition of AINU Pictures to Promote Human Rights” (creator). 1991. Exhibition of Ainu Pictures to Promote Human Rights. Sapporo: Hashimoto Printing Co. (Japanese, some English)

Dubreuil, Chisato (Kitty). 2007. “The Ainu and Their Culture: A Critical Twenty-First Century Assessment.” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 5(11). Article ID 2589. Accessed May 24, 2021. https://apjjf.org/-Chisato-Kitty-Dubreuil/2589/article.html

Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture (FRPAC). 1999. The Seasons and Life of the Ainu: Tokachi Ainu and the Painter Byōzan Hirasawa. Sapporo: The Executive Committee of the Exhibition The Season and Life of the Ainu. Accessed July 1, 2021. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_seasons_and_life_of_the_Ainu.html?id=pUv8GwAACAAJ

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